Judaism  in  Israel        

The Tanakh

The Talmud

   I. The Law  ( Torah )  circa 1500 BC

       The Mishna    text of the Oral Law, circa 200 AD


      II.   The Prophets  ( Nevi'im )

                           4  Former

             Yehoshua (Joshua)         Shophtim  (Judges)

           Shmuel (I & II  Samuel)     Melakhim (I & II  Kings)


                        3  Latter Major

                 Yeshayah (Isaiah)      Yirmyah (Jeremiah)

                                  Yechezqel (Ezekiel)


                      12 Latter Minor

                          Hoshea (Hosea)         Yoel (Joel)

                  Amos (Amos)           Ovadyah (Obadiah)

                 Yonah (Jonah)              Mikhah (Micah)

              Nachum (Nahum)     Chavaqquq (Habakkuk)

             Tzefanyah (Zephaniah)    Chaggai (Haggai)

             Zekharyah (Zechariah)     Malakhi (Malachi)  



     III. The Writings (Ketuvim)

                       3  Poetic Books                  

            Tehillim (Psalms)     Mishlei (Proverbs)     Iyov (Job)


                                            5  Scrolls

         Shir Ha-Shirim (Song of Solomon)            Ruth (Ruth)

        Eikhah (Lamentations)             Qoheleth (Ecclesiastes)

                                       Esther (Esther)

                                      3  Other Books

                     Divrei Ha-Yamim  (I & II Chronicles) 

                  Ezra & Nechemyah (Ezra & Nehemiah)

                                        Daniel (Daniel)              


The Jerusalem Gemara circa 350 AD

The Babylonian Gemara circa 350 AD


The Torah    In its limited sense, the Torah is the Pentateuch ( Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy ).  In its broadest sense, the Torah may encompass the entire body of Jewish religious beliefs, i.e., Judaism.


The Mishna    Even before the birth of Christ Rabbinical folklore asserted that God revealed knowledge about the Pentateuch to Moses on Mount Sinai that Moses did not write down, but rather passed on orally to Aaron and other Rabbis.  In time, this supposed knowledge became codified, in an oral state, as the Tradition of the Elders.   The Lord Jesus upbraided the Pharisees for following certain aspects of this tradition ( Mark 7:8,9; Matthew 15:3,5,6 ).


Nonetheless, there is some truth to the belief that the Lord Jehovah did impart knowledge to Moses that clarified the written Law, and it is because of this fact that  Jewish dogma began to be passed on from generation to generation as being worthy of having God's authority behind it.   It was not until circa 200 AD that this Oral Law was finally written down by Rabbi     Judah haNasi, and this became known as the Mishna.


The Gemara    Concurrently with the production of the Mishna there were produced two other written works which dealt with the Rabbinical interpretation and analysis of the Mishna, known as the Jerusalem Gemara and the Babylonian Gemara, since they were conceived by Rabbinical effort in those two locations.  In time, these belief sets were codified and written down circa 400 AD for the Jerusalem Gemara and circa 500 AD for the Babylonian Gemara.  Collectively, these teachings constitute the Talmud.  The Tanakh is composed of the 24 books listed in the first column, the 12 Latter Minor Prophets being taken to comprise one book.  ev                                                  








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