Kings and Prophets of the Nation of Israel

 

    

King

All Years BC

Prophet

Saul

1095-1055

Samuel

David

1055-1015

Nathan

Solomon

1015-975

Nathan, Ahijah

Israel was a unified nation under kings Saul, David, and Solomon, but God rent this unified nation into the ten northern tribes (which became known as Israel) and the two southern tribes of Benjamin and Judah (which became known as Judah) because of the idolatry of king Solomon (I Kings, chapter 11).  Israel also was known as Ephraim because, like Judah, it was the largest of the ten northern tribes.  The section immediately below explains the methodology used to generate all the dates in this table with the exception of two anchor dates - 586 BC (the destruction of the Jewish temple by Babylon) and 721 BC (the conquering of the ten northern tribes by Assyria), dates  which most biblical scholars consider to be historically accurate.   Along with these two anchor dates, the scriptures force the existence of two time intervals in which no definite kingship can be assigned to, known as Interregnum* (times in which Israel was without a king).

Southern Kingdom (Judah)

Northern Kingdom (Israel)

King

Years Reigned

Prophet(s)

 

King

Years Reigned

Prophet

Rehoboam

975-958

Ahijah, Shemaiah

 

Jeroboam

975-954

Ahijah

Abijah

958-955

Ahijah

 

Nadab

954-953

 

Asa

955-914

Azariah, Hanani

 

Baasha

953-929

Jehu

Jehoshaphat

(914-889)c

Micaiah, Elisha

 

Elah

929-927

 

Jehoram(Joram)

(895-887)c

Elijah

 

Zimri

7 days

 

Ahaziah

887-886

Elijah

 

Tibni

927-923

 

Athaliah(Queen)

886-880

 

 

Omri

927-917

 

Jehoash

880-840

Jehoiada

 

Ahab

(917-895)c

Elijah

Amaziah

840-811

Amos

 

Ahaziah

(897-895)c

Elijah

Uzziah

(811-759)c

Isaiah, Hanani

 

Joram

895-887

Elijah, Elisha

Jotham

(763-743)c

Isaiah, Jehu, Micah

 

Jehu

887-859

Elisha

Ahaz

743-726

Isaiah, Micah

 

Jehoahaz

(859-842)c

Elisha

Hezekiah

726-697

Isaiah, Micah

 

Joash(Jehoash)

(845-829)c

 

Manasseh

697-642

Isaiah, Micah, Jeremiah, Nahum

 

Jeroboam II

829-788

Jonah, Hosea, Amos

Amon

642-640

Jeremiah, Nahum, Zephaniah

 

Zachariah

(773) 6 mo

Hosea

Josiah

640-609

Jeremiah, Ezekiel,Zephaniah

 

Shallum

(772) 1 mo

Hosea

Jehoahaz

3 months

Jeremiah, Ezekiel

 

Menahem

772-762

Hosea

Jehoiakim

609-597

Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Habakkuk

 

Pekahiah

761-759

Hosea

Jehoiachin

3 months

Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Habakkuk

 

Pekah

759-739

Hosea

Zedekiah

597-586

Jeremiah, Ezekiel

 

Hoshea

729-720

Hosea, Obadiah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Judah went into Babylonian captivity: (606-536)BC                             *Israel without a king: (788-773)BC and (739-729)BC

Governor Zerubbabel (536-510) rebuilt the temple in Jerusalem in  516 BC

Temple dedicated ( Ezra 6:13-22 )  Prophets: Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi

Governor Nehemiah (445-433)BC           Wall finished in 440 BC?

 

Table Data Methodology     Two historical anchors were employed:  first, 586 BC was taken to be the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem by the Babylonians and secondly, 721 BC was taken to be the year in which the Assyrians conquered Samaria and thus the ten Northern tribes. A third (scriptural) anchor  established the reign of king Hezekiah of Judah according to the date given by the following scripture

 

And it came to pass in the fourth year of king Hezekiah, which was the seventh year of Hoshea son of Elah king of Israel, that Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up against Samaria, and besieged it.  And at the end of three years they took it: even in the sixth year of Hezekiah, that is the ninth year of Hoshea king of Israel, Samaria was taken.   2Kings 18:9,10

 

From this scripture we see that the last king of Israel was Hoshea and that his reign lasted nine years, which would be (729-720) BC.  At the same time, this defines the first year of king Hezekiah's reign in Judah as being 726 BC.    Moreover, the scriptures also tell us that king Hezekiah reigned for 29 years, so his time as king would have been (726-697) BC.  All other dates are established by considering the back-and-forth method which God uses in the scriptures as He relates kings from the Southern kingdom to kings from the Northern kingdom, as in the scripture above.  But in spite of very careful attention being paid to follow this line of reasoning to perfection, still there remain several pitfalls at arriving at a perfect solution.  These are

 

  • the fact that the Northern kingdom used the month of Tishri while Judah used the month of Nissan as the beginning of a new year*
  • all partial years were counted as whole years
  • accession year  and non-accession year  method of reckoning dates
  • the problem of co-regency, where two kings were allotted time of reign simultaneously 

 

The time period of a king's reign is defined as the following, where, say, a and b denote successive reigns:   (year a - year b) BC  denotes year a as being the initial year of a king's reign, and year b denotes the initial year of the next king's reign, i.e., year b does not enter into the number of the previous year's reign, but is rather simply a place-holder, or limit, to the first king's reign, i.e.(1983-1976)BC defines a reign of seven years, namely, 1983,1982, 1981, 1980, 1979, 1978, and 1977 (BC)  In the table, King Hoshea of Israel reigned from (729-720) BC, whereupon he was conquered in 721 BC. Thus, he was conquered in the ninth year of his reign. However, in cases of co-regency, these will be years where the next king's initial reign date will precede the first king's limit date.    edward vento   HS, PhD

 

    * http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/calendar.html

 

 

Questions/Comments?  Email to   comment@thechristianlight.org